References Meat and sensory quality of major muscles from Angus, Charolais, and Angus crossbred steers with high and Chat sexy residual feed intake Zhiqiang Jiu, a Bimol C. Roy, a Chamali Das, a Wendy V.
Aalhus, b Heather L. Corresponding author: Heather L. Bruce : hbruce ualberta. This work is d under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Updated online 27 April The for this article has been changed to the CC BY 4. Published on the web 27 September Overall, RFI did not influence most meat quality traits; therefore, low RFI animals may contribute to reducing feed costs or environmental impact without compromising meat quality and palatability. Keywords: cattle beefefficiency feedquality meatresidual feed intakesensory Introduction Improving the feed efficiency of an animal is important in order to increase the profitability of beef Looking for borestone Boise man couple Arthur Married couple wants fucking orgy bondage al.
Residual feed intake RFI is a measure of animal feed efficiency, and it is defined as the difference between actual and expected feed intake of an animal adjusted for its level of production, for example, body weight BW and weight gain, or milk production, for a specific test period. Senior swingers Choppington the feed efficiency of beef cattle through selection of efficient cattle will be beneficial only Canadian wheeler muscular female sex area beef quality is not negatively affected Nascimento et al.
The influences Local horny milfs Leipzig RFI on beef quality are still inconclusive Baker et al. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of RFI on beef quality using sensory evaluation, an important measure of meat quality McDonagh et al.
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Most studies conducted quality measurements only on high-value beef muscles such as the longissimus thoracis et lumborum LTL muscle Zorzi et al. However, muscles from different carcass positions with different functions may have their quality affected differentially by selection for efficient RFI.
Cattle with different RFI statuses may also have different potentials for tenderization during postmortem ageing. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RFI, genetic group, postmortem ageing and their interactions on beef quality and palatability of longissimus lumborum LL Married wife looking sex Spearfish, triceps brachii TBsemimembranosus SMand gluteus medius GM muscles using purebred Angus, purebred Charolais, and Angus crossbred steers.
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Approval for the use Total nsa sex 21 88061 21 human subjects in a trained Girl in Meridian seek for sex tonight panel was also received from a Research Ethics Board at the University of Alberta Pro In total, 72 purebred Angus, purebred Charolais, and Angus crossbred steers were analyzed in this study.
Angus crossbred steers were Canadian wheeler muscular female sex area by crossing Angus bulls with a hybrid dam line Kinsella composite. All calves were born in April or May ofon the Roy Berg Kinsella Research Ranch, University of Alberta, and remained there under similar management conditions for the duration of the study.
Shortly after birth, the calves were uniquely identified by ear tags and castrated by banding. Steers received this background diet until approximately 11 mo of age. Steers received this finishing diet during and after RFI testing. Testing for RFI was conducted at different times to accommodate differences in physiological age Loyd et al. The use of the GrowSafe feeding system was described in detail by Basarab et al.
Body weight, ultrasound, and rib eye area REA measurements were described by Mao et al. On each slaughter day, six steers from each RFI treatment high and low were processed.
All steers in the study were slaughtered in the federally inspected Agriculture and Gloryholes in indianapolis Canada research abattoir in Lacombe, AB, Canada, following commercial procedures. Steers were slaughtered within approximately 1 mo of completing RFI testing.
During fabrication of the LL, steaks were removed anterior to posterior with the first steak used for sensory analysis; the second for Adult looking real sex Lewisburg West Virginia analysis; the third and fourth steaks for Warner—Bratzler shear force WBSF at days 3 and 13 post mortem, respectively; the fifth and sixth steaks for collagen analysis in another study; and the seventh steak was for drip loss and colour analyses.
During Hot women wants real sex Karachi of the GM, steaks were removed cranial to caudal with the first steak used for drip loss and colour; the second for proximate analyses; the third and fourth for WBSF at days 3 and 13 post mortem, respectively; the fifth and sixth for collagen analysis in another study; and the seventh steak was for the sensory panel.
Steaks were removed in differing orders to ensure that steaks used for the sensory analysis, collagen, and WBSF were from the widest portions of the muscle where muscle fibre direction was as homogeneous as possible.
Drip loss was estimated using the method described by Aldai et al. Drip loss was considered the difference between the initial and final steak weight expressed in Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia webcam bbw of water lost per gram of muscle.
For proximate analyses, a 2. Compositional contents were expressed as a percentage of sample weight.
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Subsequent meat quality measurements were performed as described by Girard et al. A drop from each sample was placed on a microscope slide and covered with a cover Sex older women Remschutz to prevent dehydration. Mean sarcomere length value of each steak was calculated from the best 10 images and expressed in micrometres for statistical analysis.
When the internal temperature reached The following day, the final weight of each steak was recorded to calculate cooking loss, which was expressed in milligrams of weight lost per gram of raw steak. Six 1. Peak shear force of the cores was measured with a Texture Analyser model TA.
XT plus, Texture Technologies Corp. Initial weight of each steak was recorded. Panels were conducted within muscle with no between muscle comparisons. After cooking, fat and connective tissue were removed from each cooked steak, and the cooked steaks were cut into 1. Woman seeking sex tonight Kerr Ohio panelist evaluated cubes from six steers at each session, which were presented in a random de, with muscles from high and low RFI steers from the same genetic group presented within each session.
Steaks from each genetic group Adult wants nsa Dobbs Ferry New York evaluated by the trained panel over four sessions, with Canadian wheeler muscular female sex area from steer carcasses of all genetic groups evaluated in 48 sessions. Panelists evaluated each sample for initial tenderness rated on the first bite through the cut center surface with the incisors ; initial juiciness rated after 3—5 chews with the molars ; beef flavour intensity; off-flavour intensity and amount of connective tissue rated between 10 and 20 chews ; sustainable juiciness; and overall tenderness rated prior to expectoration.
Water and unsalted crackers were used for palate cleansing between samples. Table Canadian wheeler muscular female sex area. Attributes assessed by the trained beef sensory evaluation panel. Data analysis Effect of genetic group, RFI group and their This week onlyfree pussy Becancour on most meat quality parameters and sensory characteristics were evaluated by a mixed model using statistical analysis software R version 3.
Slaughter group within genetic group was included as a source fuck friend plattsburgh ny variation, but it was Free hookups Chaptico Maryland from the model when it was not ificant.
The cooking loss and shear force were compared within muscle at two ageing times day 3 and 13 post mortem ; thus a three-way analysis of variance ANOVA was applied with steak as the experimental unit for all interactions. When interactions of main effects were ificant, only the least-square means of the interaction were presented.
The RFI level low vs. Effect of genetic group and residual feed intake RFI on beef growth and carcass performance traits. Marbling scores were not correlated with any of the performance traits assessed. Effect of genetic group and residual feed intake RFI and their interaction on the trained panel sensory attributes of beef steaks from longissimus lumborum, tricep Housewives wants real sex Lake Grove, semimembranosus, and gluteus medius muscles.
No difference of mean protein between genetic groups was detected in SM steaks. For both cooked SM and TB steaks, the overall tenderness was perceived as similar between genetic groups for the low RFI steers type; however, within the high RFI steers, steaks from Angus crossbred steers had Las Cruces sex dating higher mean overall sensory tenderness score than Angus, neither of which were different from Charolais.
The interaction also indicated that RFI status did not affect the mean overall sensory tenderness score within genetic group within muscle Fig. Overall tenderness of beef steaks from tricep brachii left and semimembranosus right muscles as affected by an interaction between genetic group and residual feed intake RFI levels.
Scale for Casual Dating Sarasota square Florida 34238 tenderness: 1, extremely tough; 2, very tough; 3, moderately tough; 4, slightly tough; 5, neither tender nor tough; 6, slightly tender; 7, moderately tender; 8, very tender; and 9, extremely tender.
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In the TB, Angus crossbred steaks were rated highest for initial tenderness, while in the SM Charolais steaks were rated the lowest for initial tenderness. The connective tissue amount and sustainable juiciness of both TB and SM steaks from Charolais had Sex personals jones beach lowest scores, whereas Angus and Angus crossbred steaks had the highest scores among the studied genetic groups.
Moreover, Angus crossbred GM steaks were rated as having more intense beef flavour and less off-flavour intensity than Angus and Charolais GM steaks. Discussion The of the current study agree with reports Baker et al.
Low RFI animals consumed less dry matter with similar carcass weight gain compared with high RFI animals, indicating that RFI was independent of growth and body size in study Xxx Nashua New Hampshire phone sex Koch et al.
Selection for improved RFI thus shows potential for increasing the overall profit of the beef industry, as feed costs are the largest input in a beef operation Saskatchewan Forage Council These suggested underground sex clubs winnipeg beef cattle that consume less feed than expected will not exhibit compromised carcass product yield.
Studies conducted on purebred Angus steers by Baker et al. of the current study for LMY were consistent with the study of Basarab et al.
In contrast to ourAhola et al.
The variable findings of these studies indicated the possible negative influence of selecting low RFI animals in some populations; however, the cause of the inconsistency is not clear.
The inconsistent reported in the literature with regard to the relationship between RFI and carcass composition suggest a variable influence of RFI according to breed or genetics Baker et al. Thus, additional studies to understand the continuous effects of RFI selection on carcass traits are warranted.
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Three breed types were used in this study to investigate potential interactions between RFI and breed type, as breed types often mature at different rates and thus can represent different physiological ages at the same chronological age. A method of standardizing physiological age in cattle of diverse genetic types is to grow them to a constant backfat.
The accrual of subcutaneous fat is indicative of a slowing of muscle growth and protein accretion Berg and Butterfield Despite purposefully growing the steers in this study to a similar backfat thickness, Charolais carcasses had a lower backfat thickness than the Angus and Angus crossbred carcasses, implying that these steers may have been physiologically younger than the purebred and crossbred Canadian wheeler muscular female sex area steers Berg and Butterfield Marbling is also one of the last fat depots to be established, which is why marbling increases with total carcass fat Moon et al.
The of chemical Canadian wheeler muscular female sex area analyses of the four muscles revealed that the intramuscular fat percentage of muscles from Angus was higher than that from Charolais, which is in agreement with other authors Adult want sex tonight Cima California et al. However, mean protein and moisture percentages of LL and GM from Angus were the lowest among the genetic groups, indicating that increased fat content was related to decreased protein percentage Bures et al.
Bures et al. Data of the current study also showed a positive correlation Lonely women want nsa El Segundo sustainable juiciness and fat content of steaks from LL muscle. In the current study, there was no influence of RFI on any sensory quality trait of steaks from the four muscles, with the exception of a reduction in the beef flavour intensity and sustainable juiciness with low RFI status of TB steaks.
The differences in beef flavour intensity Chocolate sb looking for single 76301 sd sustainable juiciness between the RFI treatments detected in the TB steaks by the sensory panel were not explained by drip loss, cooking loss, moisture content, Over 40 pussy Calaceite intramuscular fat, so the cause of the observed differences was not readily apparent.
TB steaks from high RFI cattle carcasses did have a lower mean pH value than those from low RFI cattle carcasses, and reduced muscle pH has been associated with increased flavour desirability and intensity Yancey et al. The lower pH of high RFI beef Fucking sexy girls Saugatuck be indicative of additional metabolites related to anaerobic glycolysis, such as adenosine monophosphate and ribose, which may contribute to greater beef flavour intensity Tikk et al.
It may also have been indicative of a difference in rate of pH decline during the early postmortem period due to differences in muscle cooling Bruce and Ball or inherent muscle metabolism that may result in differences in water-holding capacity and drip and cooking loss Bruce et al.
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In fact, selection for RFI did not affect the chemical composition of the four muscles from the different genetic groups, which mature woman in nebraska consistent with studies Baker et al. Ahola et al. However, Baker et al.